Sputnik 1, a Russian-based artificial satellite was launched into an elliptical low Earth orbit for three weeks before its battery died. Without a battery, it drifted for two months before falling back down to Earth.
Vostok 1 was the first successful human spaceflight, carrying Yuri Gagarin for one complete orbit aorund the Earth. This trip lasted 1 hour and 48 minutes before re-entry.
Luna 2 became the first successful Moon landing vehicle in 1959. Taking a little under two days, Luna 2 impacted the Moon and ended its mission as a success.
Luna 9 became the first spacecraft to land on the Moon with little to no damage to the vehicle, using a landing bag. After landing, the spacecraft opened up and began trasmitting radio sessions and TV pictures. These photographs were shared with the world by the Daily Express, who intercepted and decoded the Russian signal.
Four Pioneer spacecraft (named Pioneer 6, 7, 8, and 9) were successfully launched into Solar orbit, continuously performing experiments from 1965 through 1968. These vehicles tracked cosmic rays, discovered He+ plasma of Halley's Comet, provided a solar weather network, measured solar winds, and performed other experiments.
Possibly the most famous space mission, Apollo 11 was the first spaceflight to land humans on the Moon. American astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed at a site named Tranquility Base on the moon, collecting lunar material and experimenting with human movements in low-gravity. These astronauts then launched off the Moon and rejoined fellow astronaut Michael Collins in the Moon's orbit before returning to Earth.
The Salyut I space station was launched successfully on its first attempt and orbited for six months before being intentionally destroyed during re-entry. During its time in orbit, Salyut I was visited by both the Soyuz 10 and Soyuz 11 spaceships. The Soyuz 10 crew was unable to enter the space station and had to return to Earth. The Soyuz 11 crew successfully docked and stayed in the station for 23 days. However, the crew was killed during re-entry to Earth and Salyut I de-orbited soon after.
The ISS is a joint project between five participating space agencies: NASA (United States), Roscosmos (Russia), JAXA (Japan), ESA (Europe), and CSA (Canada). The ownership and use of the space station is established by intergovernmental treaties and agreements. First inhabited in 2000, the station has been constantly manned since those first long-term residents. Among the residents are scientists and occasional tourists from 18 different nations who have continuously updated and expanded the station.